Background of Technology
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Definition:
xxxxxA vaccine is a non-living or weak organism, such as a parasitical microscopic life form which makes up a medical substance such as an antigenc complex natural compound or protein that is administerd to prevent disease, treat infection, or eliminate the threat of infection and disease ("Vaccine," n.d.).

Context

Context 1:
xxxxxDisease or infection had to be present and recognized before a vaccination and prevention of itself could be created. A relation was noticed early on in history with concerns to individuals who recovered from a disease, they would subsequitenly become resistant to the same disease later on in life. In the early seventeen hundreds, variolation (the inoculation of a healthy individual by means of skin or nose with exudates of lesions from an individual suffering from small pox) was tested with success in Great Britain. This opened the doors for Pasteur's investigations in the late eighteen hundreds. Pasteur had the abilities to grow pathogenic bacterium that would become non-virulent. Pasteur tested his non-virulent vaccines on chickens and found great success. This led to the vaccination of individuals with non-virulent organisms. Pasteur's findings led to many safe vaccine developments during the nineteen hundreds (Payette & Davis, 2001).

Context 2:
xxxxxxBegining in the 1970’s, the United States took a stand at the forefront of vaccine safety, health, and development of medicine when it introduced the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and later the National Institute of Health (NIH). These groups today carry out studies, hold workshops, and publish reports on findings. The IOM has reviewed policies brought on by the former president which limit the use of stem cells in Stem Cell Research. The IOM reviewed the ethic’s dilemma on this topic and offered certain guidance on how to proceed with this form of research. Currently the IOM is pressing the issue of health care reform in the United States and wants to improve biomedical research along with health care access and the delivery of medicine. With the IOM and NIH at the head, stem cell, genetic coding, and DNA research in the development of vaccines may very well be right around the corner to aid in the prevention of infectious diseases (Nair, 2009).

xxxxxxSince the creation of internal medicine, vaccines have been the most effective source of immunization and intervention of a disease or illness. The majority of vaccine development today follows the basic principles founded by Pasteur's research. With the development of genetic coding, the future of vaccine development could become limitless and vaccination could perhaps prevent or even cure all diseases and infections. Vaccines that are produced using genetic coding or reverse vaccinology are more potent than ever before. These new mdna_500.jpgore potent vaccines are safer than ever and have the ability to target innate immune systems. Using the genetic information known today gives scientists of tomorrow the opportunity of tackling the creation of vaccines that can prevent infectious diseases such as HIV and cancer (Rappuoli, 2005).

xxxxxToday, based on the success of vaccine creation strategies and the global decline of infectious disease, the World Health Organization has adopted a campain to develope novel vaccines. These novel vaccines developed from genetic coding and DNA science will aid in the struggle against current or future epidemics (Payette & Davis, 2001).



Transition statement:
Let's continue on our journey as we investigate the impacts vaccines have had and will potentially continue having on humanity.

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